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English Flyer for passers-by, A5 format in German, French, Italian and Slovenian web version, contact us for the print version.
English Service provision is increasingly driven by internet transactions; progress with the DSM strategy could, in itself, facilitate the single market in services.
English Without these cookies we cannot guarantee that you will be able to navigate around the website, search for and book flights and other services, log in to your profile or make changes to your bookings.
English In areas where risk is likely to be a considerable feature of the exchange, dotcoms for example, commercial banking may be deemed inappropriate and unworkable.
English Do not forget, however, that a certain number of precautions should be taken when giving out private information online see Fact Sheets 15 and 16 on privacy and security.
English Those in a position to act "try to convince others to use the Internet by demonstrating the three main activities it facilitates: doing business, working, and playing games.
English All our vehiclesare provided with a GPS device which allow us to keep our clients informed of the exact location of their goods at any time.
French "" Vous pouvez ajouter aussi l'audio du microphone ou d'autre source. English It's a great way to make awesome Software or Web site Tutorials, make videos from Powerpoint presentations, record IM and Chat sessions, record Webcasts, and more!
The number of subscriptions is predicted to rise to 5. Fragmentation restricts access to media content and tends to affect poorest users the most.
Zero-rating , the practice of Internet service providers allowing users free connectivity to access specific content or applications without cost, has offered opportunities to surmount economic hurdles, but has also been accused by its critics as creating a two-tiered Internet.
To address the issues with zero-rating, an alternative model has emerged in the concept of 'equal rating' and is being tested in experiments by Mozilla and Orange in Africa.
Equal rating prevents prioritization of one type of content and zero-rates all content up to a specified data cap. A study published by Chatham House , 15 out of 19 countries researched in Latin America had some kind of hybrid or zero-rated product offered.
Some countries in the region had a handful of plans to choose from across all mobile network operators while others, such as Colombia , offered as many as 30 pre-paid and 34 post-paid plans.
A study of eight countries in the Global South found that zero-rated data plans exist in every country, although there is a great range in the frequency with which they are offered and actually used in each.
Across the plans examined, 13 per cent were offering zero-rated services. At the top is the application layer , where communication is described in terms of the objects or data structures most appropriate for each application.
Below this top layer, the transport layer connects applications on different hosts with a logical channel through the network. It provides this service with a variety of possible characteristics, such ordered, reliable delivery TCP , and an unreliable datagram service UDP.
Underlying these layers are the networking technologies that interconnect networks at their borders and exchange traffic across them.
The Internet layer implements the Internet Protocol IP which enables computers to identify and locate each other by IP address , and route their traffic via intermediate transit networks.
At the bottom of the architecture is the link layer , which connects nodes on the same physical link, and contains protocols that do not require routers for traversal to other links.
The protocol suite does not explicitly specify hardware methods to transfer bits, or protocols to manage such hardware, but assumes that appropriate technology is available.
IP enables internetworking and, in essence, establishes the Internet itself. For locating individual computers on the network, the Internet provides IP addresses.
IP addresses are used by the Internet infrastructure to direct internet packets to their destinations. They consist of fixed-length numbers, which are found within the packet.
However the network also supports other addressing systems. Users generally enter domain names e. However, the explosive growth of the Internet has led to IPv4 address exhaustion , which entered its final stage in ,  when the global IPv4 address allocation pool was exhausted.
Because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses , a new version of IP IPv6 , was developed in the mids, which provides vastly larger addressing capabilities and more efficient routing of Internet traffic.
IPv6 uses bits for the IP address and was standardized in IPv6 is not directly interoperable by design with IPv4. In essence, it establishes a parallel version of the Internet not directly accessible with IPv4 software.
Thus, translation facilities must exist for internetworking or nodes must have duplicate networking software for both networks. Essentially all modern computer operating systems support both versions of the Internet Protocol.
Network infrastructure, however, has been lagging in this development. Aside from the complex array of physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts, e.
Indeed, the Internet is defined by its interconnections and routing policies. A subnetwork or subnet is a logical subdivision of an IP network.
Computers that belong to a subnet are addressed with an identical most-significant bit -group in their IP addresses. This results in the logical division of an IP address into two fields, the network number or routing prefix and the rest field or host identifier.
The rest field is an identifier for a specific host or network interface. For example, Addresses in the range For IPv4, a network may also be characterized by its subnet mask or netmask , which is the bitmask that when applied by a bitwise AND operation to any IP address in the network, yields the routing prefix.
Subnet masks are also expressed in dot-decimal notation like an address. Traffic is exchanged between subnetworks through routers when the routing prefixes of the source address and the destination address differ.
A router serves as a logical or physical boundary between the subnets. The benefits of subnetting an existing network vary with each deployment scenario.
In the address allocation architecture of the Internet using CIDR and in large organizations, it is necessary to allocate address space efficiently.
Subnetting may also enhance routing efficiency, or have advantages in network management when subnetworks are administratively controlled by different entities in a larger organization.
Subnets may be arranged logically in a hierarchical architecture, partitioning an organization's network address space into a tree-like routing structure.
Computers and routers use routing tables in their operating system to direct IP packets to reach a node on a different subnetwork.
Routing tables are maintained by manual configuration or automatically by routing protocols. End-nodes typically use a default route that points toward an ISP providing transit, while ISP routers use the Border Gateway Protocol to establish the most efficient routing across the complex connections of the global Internet.
The default gateway is the node that serves as the forwarding host router to other networks when no other route specification matches the destination IP address of a packet.
While the hardware components in the Internet infrastructure can often be used to support other software systems, it is the design and the standardization process of the software that characterizes the Internet and provides the foundation for its scalability and success.
The principal methods of networking that enable the Internet are contained in specially designated RFCs that constitute the Internet Standards.
Other less rigorous documents are simply informative, experimental, or historical, or document the best current practices BCP when implementing Internet technologies.
The Internet carries many applications and services , most prominently the World Wide Web, including social media , electronic mail , mobile applications , multiplayer online games , Internet telephony , file sharing , and streaming media services.
Most servers that provide these services are today hosted in data centers , and content is often accessed through high-performance content delivery networks.
The World Wide Web is a global collection of documents , images , multimedia , applications, and other resources, logically interrelated by hyperlinks and referenced with Uniform Resource Identifiers URIs , which provide a global system of named references.
URIs symbolically identify services, web servers , databases, and the documents and resources that they can provide.
Web services also use HTTP for communication between software systems for information transfer, sharing and exchanging business data and logistic and is one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
These documents may also contain any combination of computer data , including graphics, sounds, text , video , multimedia and interactive content that runs while the user is interacting with the page.
Client-side software can include animations, games , office applications and scientific demonstrations. Through keyword -driven Internet research using search engines like Yahoo!
Compared to printed media, books, encyclopedias and traditional libraries, the World Wide Web has enabled the decentralization of information on a large scale.
The Web has enabled individuals and organizations to publish ideas and information to a potentially large audience online at greatly reduced expense and time delay.
Publishing a web page, a blog, or building a website involves little initial cost and many cost-free services are available. However, publishing and maintaining large, professional web sites with attractive, diverse and up-to-date information is still a difficult and expensive proposition.
Many individuals and some companies and groups use web logs or blogs, which are largely used as easily updatable online diaries.
Some commercial organizations encourage staff to communicate advice in their areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert knowledge and free information, and be attracted to the corporation as a result.
Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative, and e-commerce , which is the sale of products and services directly via the Web, continues to grow.
Online advertising is a form of marketing and advertising which uses the Internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers.
It includes email marketing, search engine marketing SEM , social media marketing, many types of display advertising including web banner advertising , and mobile advertising.
In , Internet advertising revenues in the United States surpassed those of cable television and nearly exceeded those of broadcast television.
When the Web developed in the s, a typical web page was stored in completed form on a web server, formatted in HTML , complete for transmission to a web browser in response to a request.
Over time, the process of creating and serving web pages has become dynamic, creating a flexible design, layout, and content.
Websites are often created using content management software with, initially, very little content. Contributors to these systems, who may be paid staff, members of an organization or the public, fill underlying databases with content using editing pages designed for that purpose while casual visitors view and read this content in HTML form.
There may or may not be editorial, approval and security systems built into the process of taking newly entered content and making it available to the target visitors.
Email is an important communications service available via the Internet. The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties, analogous to mailing letters or memos, predates the creation of the Internet.
Email messages can be cc-ed to multiple email addresses. Internet telephony is a common communications service realized with the Internet.
The idea began in the early s with walkie-talkie -like voice applications for personal computers. VoIP systems now dominate many markets, and are as easy to use and as convenient as a traditional telephone.
The benefit has been in substantial cost savings over traditional telephone calls, especially over long distances.
Cable , ADSL , and mobile data networks provide Internet access in customer premises  and inexpensive VoIP network adapters provide the connection for traditional analog telephone sets.
The voice quality of VoIP often exceeds that of traditional calls. Remaining problems for VoIP include the situation that emergency services may not be universally available, and that devices rely on a local power supply, while older traditional phones are powered from the local loop, and typically operate during a power failure.
File sharing is an example of transferring large amounts of data across the Internet. A computer file can be emailed to customers, colleagues and friends as an attachment.
It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server for instant use by colleagues. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of " mirror " servers or peer-to-peer networks.
In any of these cases, access to the file may be controlled by user authentication , the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured by encryption , and money may change hands for access to the file.
The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from, for example, a credit card whose details are also passed—usually fully encrypted—across the Internet.
The origin and authenticity of the file received may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests.
These simple features of the Internet, over a worldwide basis, are changing the production, sale, and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission.
This includes all manner of print publications, software products, news, music, film, video, photography, graphics and the other arts.
This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products.
Streaming media is the real-time delivery of digital media for the immediate consumption or enjoyment by end users. Many radio and television broadcasters provide Internet feeds of their live audio and video productions.
They may also allow time-shift viewing or listening such as Preview, Classic Clips and Listen Again features. These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet "broadcasters" who never had on-air licenses.
This means that an Internet-connected device, such as a computer or something more specific, can be used to access on-line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with a television or radio receiver.
The range of available types of content is much wider, from specialized technical webcasts to on-demand popular multimedia services.
Podcasting is a variation on this theme, where—usually audio—material is downloaded and played back on a computer or shifted to a portable media player to be listened to on the move.
These techniques using simple equipment allow anybody, with little censorship or licensing control, to broadcast audio-visual material worldwide.
Digital media streaming increases the demand for network bandwidth. Webcams are a low-cost extension of this phenomenon.
While some webcams can give full-frame-rate video, the picture either is usually small or updates slowly. Internet users can watch animals around an African waterhole, ships in the Panama Canal , traffic at a local roundabout or monitor their own premises, live and in real time.
Video chat rooms and video conferencing are also popular with many uses being found for personal webcams, with and without two-way sound.
YouTube was founded on 15 February and is now the leading website for free streaming video with more than two billion users. YouTube claims that its users watch hundreds of millions, and upload hundreds of thousands of videos daily.
The Internet has enabled new forms of social interaction, activities, and social associations. This phenomenon has given rise to the scholarly study of the sociology of the Internet.
From to , the number of Internet users globally rose from million to 1. The number of China's Internet users surpassed a major milestone in , when the country's Internet regulatory authority, China Internet Network Information Centre, announced that China had million Internet users.
However, in terms of penetration, China has [ when? The prevalent language for communication via the Internet has always been English.
This may be a result of the origin of the Internet, as well as the language's role as a lingua franca and as a world language.
However, some glitches such as mojibake incorrect display of some languages' characters still remain. In an American study in , the percentage of men using the Internet was very slightly ahead of the percentage of women, although this difference reversed in those under Men logged on more often, spent more time online, and were more likely to be broadband users, whereas women tended to make more use of opportunities to communicate such as email.
Men were more likely to use the Internet to pay bills, participate in auctions, and for recreation such as downloading music and videos.
Men and women were equally likely to use the Internet for shopping and banking. Several neologisms exist that refer to Internet users: Netizen as in "citizen of the net"  refers to those actively involved in improving online communities , the Internet in general or surrounding political affairs and rights such as free speech ,   Internaut refers to operators or technically highly capable users of the Internet,   digital citizen refers to a person using the Internet in order to engage in society, politics, and government participation.
The Internet allows greater flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections. The Internet can be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means, including through mobile Internet devices.
Mobile phones, datacards , handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet wirelessly.
Within the limitations imposed by small screens and other limited facilities of such pocket-sized devices, the services of the Internet, including email and the web, may be available.
Service providers may restrict the services offered and mobile data charges may be significantly higher than other access methods.
Educational material at all levels from pre-school to post-doctoral is available from websites. Examples range from CBeebies , through school and high-school revision guides and virtual universities , to access to top-end scholarly literature through the likes of Google Scholar.
For distance education , help with homework and other assignments, self-guided learning, whiling away spare time or just looking up more detail on an interesting fact, it has never been easier for people to access educational information at any level from anywhere.
The Internet in general and the World Wide Web in particular are important enablers of both formal and informal education. Further, the Internet allows universities, in particular, researchers from the social and behavioral sciences, to conduct research remotely via virtual laboratories, with profound changes in reach and generalizability of findings as well as in communication between scientists and in the publication of results.
The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills have made collaborative work dramatically easier, with the help of collaborative software.
Not only can a group cheaply communicate and share ideas but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups more easily to form.
An example of this is the free software movement , which has produced, among other things, Linux , Mozilla Firefox , and OpenOffice. Internet chat, whether using an IRC chat room, an instant messaging system, or a social networking service, allows colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way while working at their computers during the day.
Messages can be exchanged even more quickly and conveniently than via email. These systems may allow files to be exchanged, drawings and images to be shared, or voice and video contact between team members.
An internal CCTV survey indicates that nearly million people countrywide regularly watch this program.
However, it has only about 30 percent of audience share over the national territory. Beijing Television BTV broadcasts on numbered channels 1 through CCTV 4 has a short newscast in English every day.
China offers a very basic cable packages. There are about 40 channels that fall within 4 basic categories: Japanese occupation drama, Dynastic period drama, variety show or "focused" news.
Beijing is generally unable to effectively monitor or control the many illicit cable operators. Called "enhanced cable", this service can be purchased through the regular cable TV provider.
It is common for channels to mysteriously go dark on occasion. The basic package costs 72 RMB for 6 months of service.
For an expanded package subscriptions cost RMB a year. Widely available, satellite dishes pull in programs from Hong Kong and Taiwan.
The signal offers access to shows in the US, UK, and the rest of the world. Reception is good, but sometimes the weather disturbs the signal and the network goes down.
Government entities like the Ministry of Machinery Industry and the military services often produce dishes outside allowable quotas and guidelines and then sell them illicitly to customers.
Efforts by the Ministry of Radio, Film, and Television to halt this practice have been ineffective, mostly because of the large profits involved— people selling dishes make up to 50 percent per dish.
Most people buy a dish and a hacked box from a local provider which is not technically legal. The dish and box are usually between 1, and 3, RMB, and after a do-it-yourself installation you are able to watch satellite programs.
Sometimes an annual online subscription is available for automatic updates to the hacked box. Streaming shows online is very popular.
There is slack policing of copyrighted material on Chinese video sharing network, Youku. Users upload virtually anything and only occasionally do videos get taken down for copyright infringement.
The site is in Chinese. There are many other websites like this. China has more Internet users than any other country in the world.
It is estimated that more than million people in mainland China now have Internet access. Unfortunately, access tends to be quite slow and censorship can be quite frustrating.
The Chinese government has been quite oppressive on internet censorship. Unlimitiertes Datenvolumen.
Der optimale Internetspeed Welche Geschwindigkeit brauche ich in meinem Haushalt? Wissenswertes zum Internet für Zuhause Häufige Fragen.
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Soll der Internet Tarif besonders flexibel sein und keine Vertragsbindung aufweisen? Ist der gewünschte Internet Tarif bei Ihnen Zuhause auch verfügbar?
Mehr Tipps zum passenden Internet Tarif. Warum schwankt die Internetgeschwindigkeit zuhause? Wie setzen sich die Kosten für einen Internetanschluss in Österreich zusammen?
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